Certifications Sinking Spring Pennsylvania

EDUCATION AND LICENSURE

Doctor of Chiropractic, Licensed in the State of Pennsylvania, License # – DC011049, 2015 – Present

Doctorate of Chiropractic, Palmer College of Chiropractic, Port Orange, Florida, 2015

Internship, FitForLife Health Clinic, Naples, Florida 2014 – 2015

National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part 4 2014

National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part 3 2014

National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part 2 2014

National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part 1 2013

Bachelor of Science in Communication Studies, Kutztown University, Kutztown, PA, 2011

Undergraduate Studies, Reading Area Community College, Reading, PA 2009

POST DOCTORAL STUDIES

Neurodiagnostics, Imaging Protocols and Pathology of the Trauma Patient, an in-depth understanding of the protocols in triaging and reporting the clinical findings of the trauma patient. Maintaining ethical relationships with the medical-legal community. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

Diagnostics, Risk Factors, Clinical Presentation and Triaging the Trauma Patient, an extensive understanding of the injured with clinically coordinating the history, physical findings and when to integrate neurodiagnostics. An understanding on how to utilize emergency room records in creating an accurate diagnosis and the significance of “risk factors” in spinal injury. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

Crash Dynamics and Its Relationship to Causality, an extensive understanding of the physics involved in the transference of energy from the bullet car to the target car. This includes G’s of force, Newton’s, gravity, energy, skid marks, crumple zones, spring factors, event data recorder and the graphing of the movement of the vehicle before, during and after the crash. Determining the clinical correlation of forces and bodily injury. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

MRI, Bone Scan and X-Ray Protocols, Physiology and Indications for the Trauma Patient, MRI interpretation, physiology, history and clinical indications, bone scan interpretation, physiology and clinical indications, x-ray clinical indications for the trauma patient. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

Neurodiagnostic Testing Protocols, Physiology and Indications for the Trauma Patient, Electromyography (EMG), Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV), Somato Sensory Evoked Potential (SSEP), Visual Evoked Potential (VEP), Brain Stem Auditory Evoked Potential (BAER) and Visual-Electronystagmography (V-ENG) interpretation, protocols and clinical indications for the trauma patient. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

Documentation and Reporting for the Trauma Victim, Understanding the necessity for accurate documentation and diagnosis utilizing the ICD-9 and the CPT to accurately describe the injury through diagnosis. Understanding and utilizing state regulations on reimbursement issues pertaining to healthcare. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

Documenting Clinically Correlated Bodily Injury to Causality, Understanding the necessity for accurate documentation, diagnosis and clinical correlation to the injury when reporting injuries in the medical-legal community. Documenting the kinesiopathology, myopathology, neuropathology, and pathophysiology in both a functional and structural paradigm. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

Head Trauma, Brain Injury and Concussion, Brain and head physiology, brain mapping and pathology as a sequella to trauma. Traumatic brain injury, mild traumatic brain injury, axonal shearing, diffuse axonal injury and concussion are detailed in etiology and clinically. Clinical presentation, advanced diagnostic imaging and electrodiagnostics are detailed in analysis to create a differential diagnosis. Balance disorders that often occur as a result of trauma are also explored from clinical presentation to advanced imaging and differential diagnosis. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Long Island, NY, 2016

Interprofessional Hospital Based Spine Care, Trends in hospital and emergent care in the healthcare delivery system inclusive of policies, hospital staffing and current care paths for mechanical spine issues. Texas Chiropractic College Graduate Doctoral Program, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Long Island, NY, 2016

Primary Spine Care – Central Nervous System Processing of Pain and Physiology, Central neural pathways of pain and higher cortical responses to pain and the effect of high amplitude-low velocity forces on mechanoreceptors and proprioceptors. The effects of neuropeptides on the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal axis when treating patients. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Melville, NY, 2016

Primary Spine Care – MRI, Bone Edema and Degeneration, The effects of trauma on spinal vertebral segments and the short and long term sequella to morphology. Identifying and diagnosing bone edema, spurring, types of degeneration in assessing biomechanical stability in conjunction with Modic and Pfeiffer changes. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Melville, NY, 2016

Primary Spine Care – Hospital and Emergency Room Care, identifying spinal lesions inclusive of cord and root lesion through examination and advanced imaging in creating an accurate diagnosis, prognosis and treatment plan to effectively triage in collaboration and coordination with medical specialists and emergency department physicians. Differentially diagnosing and triaging disc degenerative bulges, traumatic disc bulges, protrusion herniations, extrusion herniations and fragmented herniations along with managing traumatically induced pain as sequella to degenerative disc trauma. Texas Chiropractic College, Academy of Chiropractic, Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Melville, NY, 2016

MRI History and Physics, Magnetic fields, T1 and T2 relaxations, nuclear spins, phase encoding, spin echo, T1 and T2 contrast, magnetic properties of metals and the historical perspective of the creation of NMR and MRI. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

MRI Spinal Anatomy and Protocols, Normal anatomy of axial and sagittal views utilizing T1, T2, 3D gradient and STIR sequences of imaging. Standardized and desired protocols in views and sequencing of MRI examination to create an accurate diagnosis in MRI. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

MRI Disc Pathology and Spinal Stenosis, MRI interpretation of bulged, herniated, protruded, extruded, sequestered and fragmented disc pathologies in etiology and neurological sequelae in relationship to the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

MRI Spinal Pathology, MRI interpretation of bone, intradural, extradural, cord and neural sleeve lesions. Tuberculosis, drop lesions, metastasis, ependymoma, schwanoma and numerous other spinal related tumors and lesions. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

MRI Methodology of Analysis, MRI interpretation sequencing of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine inclusive of T1, T2, STIR and 3D gradient studies to ensure the accurate diagnosis of the region visualized. New York Chiropractic Council, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

MRI Clinical Application, The clinical application of the results of space occupying lesions. Disc and tumor pathologies and the clinical indications of manual and adjustive therapies in the patient with spinal nerve root and spinal cord insult as sequelae. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

MRI Protocols Clinical Necessity, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images. Clinical indication for the utilization of MRI and pathologies of disc in both trauma and non-trauma sequellae, including bulge, herniation, protrusion, extrusion and sequestration. [Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

MRI Interpretation of Lumbar Degeneration/Bulges, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of lumbar degeneration. With the co-morbidities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl’s nodes and herniations. Central canal and cauda equina compromise interpretation with management. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

MRI Interpretation of Lumbar Herniations, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of lumbar herniations. With the co-morbities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl’s nodes and herniations. Morphology of lumbar disc pathologies of central and lateral herniations, protrusions, extrusions, sequestration, focal and broad based herniations are defined and illustrated. Central canal and cauda equina compromise interpretation with management. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Reconized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

MRI Interpretation of Cervical Degeneration/Bulges, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of cervical degeneration. With the co-morbidities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl’s nodes and herniations. Spinal cord and canal compromise interpretation with management. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

MRI Interpretation of Cervical Herniations, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR Axial, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of lumbar herniations. With the co-morbidities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl’s nodes and herniations. morphology of lumbar disc pathologies of central and lateral herniations,protrusions, extrusions, sequestration, focal and broad based herniations are defined and illustrated. Spinal cord and canal compromise interpretation with management. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

MRI Interpretation of Degenerative Spine and Disc Disease with Overlapping Traumatic Insult to Both Spine and Disc, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR Axial, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of degenerative spondylolesthesis, spinal canal stenosis, Modic type 3 changes, central herniations, extrusions, compressions, nerve root compressions, advanced spurring and thecal sac involvement from an orthopedic, emergency room, chiropractic, neurological, neurosurgical, physical medicine perspective. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2016

Primary Spine Care Symposium – Interprofessional Spine Care, Clinical analysis of anatomic versus biomechanical spine pain and clinical triage protocols. Relating current research trends in the Whole Spine Model of patient including normal versus abnormal sagittal curvature in the adolescent and adult spine, pelvic incidence as a parameter for sagittal balance in the human spine and current methods of assessment. Patient centered approach to Evidenced Based Spine care with a focus on diagnosis, prognosis and triage of the spine pain patient, Texas Chiropractic College Post-Doctoral Division, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Melville NY 2017

Primary Spine Care Symposium – Epidemiology of Spine Pain, Review of the current Centers for Disease Control [CDC} data on the frequency of musculoskeletal pain in the United States population with emphasis on pain of spinal origin. CDC guidelines on opioid medication were discussed and correlated to persistent pain syndromes. Research was reviewed showing the importance of managing the spine pain patient properly from the entry point of care with a concentration on maintenance of spinal biomechanics, Texas Chiropractic College Post-Doctoral Division, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Melville NY 2017

Primary Spine Care Symposium – Connective Tissue and Spinal Disc Pathology, The morphology and pathology of connective tissue, inclusive of spinal disc disorders and prognosticating wound repair with permanency implications. Disc bulge, herniation, protrusion and extrusion classifications based upon contemporary literature and how to age-date disc pathology, Texas Chiropractic College Post-Doctoral Division, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Melville NY 2017

Primary Spine Care Symposium – Physiology and Anatomy of Spinal Manual Adjusting, Understanding the role of mechanoreceptors, proprioceptors and nociceptors with facets, ligaments, tendons and muscles in aberrant spinal biomechanics. MRI and imaging studies of decompressing via a chiropractic spinal adjustment of the bio-neuro-mechanical lesion and its effects on the central nervous system both reflexively and supratentorally, Texas Chiropractic College Post-Doctoral Division, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Melville NY 2017

Primary Spine Care Symposium – Medical-Legal Documentation, The contemporary documentation required in a medical-legal environment that is evidenced based and meets the standards of the courts and academia. Utilizing the scientific data to support a diagnosis, prognosis and treatment plan while meeting the admissibility standards based upon a professional’s credentials. Texas Chiropractic College Post-Doctoral Division, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Melville NY 2017

Stroke Anatomy and Physiology: Brain Vascular Anatomy, The anatomy and physiology of the brain and how blood perfusion effects brain function. A detailed analysis of the blood supply to the brain and the physiology of ischemia. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2017

Stroke Anatomy and Physiology: Stroke Types and Blood Flow, Various types of stroke identifying ischemia, hypoperfusion, infarct and penumbra zones and emboli. Cardiac etiologies and clinical features as precursor to stroke with associated paradoxical emboli and thrombotic etiologies. Historical and co-morbidities that have etiology instroke inclusive of diabetes, coagulopathy, acquired and hereditary deficiencies. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2017

Stroke Principles of Treatment an Overview for the Primary Care Provider, Stroke type and treatments performed by vascular specialists. The goals of treatment with the physiology of the infarct and penumbra zones and the role of immediate triage in the primary care setting. Detailing the complications of stroke and future care in the chiropractic, primary care or manual medicine clinical setting. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2017

Clinical Evaluation and Protocols for Identifying Stroke Risk, The neurological history and examination for identifying stroke risks with a focus on supra and infratentorial regions, upper and lower motor lesions, cranial nerve signs, spinal cord pathology, motor and sensory pathology and gait abnormalities. Examining genetic and family histories along with dissection risk factors. Stroke orthopedic testing and clinical guidelines pertaining to triage for the primary care provider. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2017

Impairment Rating, The understanding and utilization of the protocols and parameters of the AMA Guide to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment 6th Edition. Spine, neurological sequelae, migraine, sexual dysfunction, sleep and arousal disorders, station and gait disorders and consciousness are detailed for impairment rating. Herniated discs, radiculopathy, fracture, dislocationa and functional loss are also detailed in relation to impairment ratings. Texas Chiropractic College or PACE Recognized by The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards], ACCME Joint Providership with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Buffalo, NY, 2017

Evidence Based Spine Care: Epidemiology of spine care, the opioid epidemic and spinal manipulation for pain management. Functional neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of pain perception, including descending modulation of pain in the central nervous system. Review of specific research outlining spinal manipulations influence on the central nervous system in the spine pain patient. Clinical assessment and interprofessional communications relating to the diagnosis and management of the mechanical spine pain patient. Academy of Chiropractic, Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Cherry Hill, New Jersey 2017

Evidence Based Spine Care: Spinal biomechanics and response to trauma. Detailed review of spinal instability, mechanical spine trauma and global spinal biomechanical balance. The influence of spinal sagittal curvature, pelvic incidence, sacral slope and pelvic tilt on conservative and surgical care outcomes. Clinical correlation with radiographic and advanced imaging findings specific to the spine pain patient. Academy of Chiropractic, Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Cherry Hill, New Jersey 2017

Evidence Based Spine Care: Coordination of care and clinical documentation associated with interprofessional communication. Focus on the safety of chiropractic management of the spine pain patient and review of research related to specific phases of care, acute intervention, corrective care and health maintenance care were reviewed. Documentation and workflows related to an interprofessional team approach focusing on compliance and delivery in the modern practice environment. Academy of Chiropractic, Academy of Chiropractic, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Cherry Hill, New Jersey 2017

SCHOLARLY LECTURES

Smith, T. (2016, February). Back Safe Program, Reading, PA

SELECTED AWARDS

Best in Berks – Chiropractic Office, 2015, 2016

Outstanding Service Award, Palmer College of Chiropractic Sports Council, 2014

Outstanding Service Award, Palmer College of Chiropractic Student Council, 2014

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